Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

To determine the maximum value of X where recycling is not cost-effective, we need to compare the **marginal costs **of mining and recycling. If the** marginal cost** of recycling (MC2) exceeds the marginal cost of mining (MC1), then recycling is not cost-effective.

The** marginal cost** of mining (MC1) is given as 8q1, where q1 represents the quantity of ore mined. The marginal cost of obtaining ore through recycling (MC2) is given as 25 + 4q2, where q2 represents the quantity of ore obtained through recycling. For recycling to be cost-effective, MC2 should be less than MC1. Therefore, we can set up the inequality 25 + 4q2 < 8q1.

To further analyze this situation, we need to express q1 and q2 in terms of X and Q. From the inverse demand curve P = X - 0.82Q, we can solve for Q in terms of P: Q = (X - P) / 0.82. Now, substituting the expressions for q1 and q2 into the inequality, we get 25 + 4((X - P) / 0.82) < 8q1.

By simplifying and rearranging the terms, we find 32P - 4X < 156.

To determine the maximum value of X where recycling is not cost-effective, we set the inequality to equality: 32P - 4X = 156.

Solving for X, we find X = 8P - 39.

Therefore, the maximum value of X for which recycling is not cost-effective is 8P - 39.

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## Related Questions

If the lender sets the interest rate at 0.2 (i.e., 20%), which borrower(s) will want to take the loan? Hint: for each borrower type, solve for the maximum interest rate at which they are willing to ta

### Answers

If the lender sets the **interest rate **at 0.2 (i.e., 20%), which borrower(s) will want to take the loan?The maximum interest rate that a borrower will be willing to take up depends on the borrower type.

There are two categories of borrowers, type A and type B, with the following characteristics:Type A borrower: At 0.2 interest rate, the present value of the loan is $58,045.78, given as; PV = FV / (1 + r)nPV = $10,000 / (1 + 0.2)10PV = $58,045.78

Therefore, Type A **borrowers **will want to take the loan because the present value of the loan ($58,045.78) is less than the present value of the $100,000 payment they are expected to make.Type B borrower: At 0.2 interest rate, the present value of the **loan **is $40,265.49, given as;PV = FV / (1 + r)nPV = $10,000 / (1 + 0.2)5PV = $40,265.49

Therefore, Type B borrowers will also want to take the loan because the present value of the loan ($40,265.49) is less than the present value of the $50,000 payment they are expected to make. In summary, both Type A and Type B borrowers will want to take the loan if the **lender **sets the interest rate at 0.2.

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Scenario: One of your team members Aadam is a practising Muslim who is taking part in Ramadan. Aadam discusses this with you and you support his request to take a 10-minute break corresponding with the prayer times and fasts during work hours. Other team members have noticed that Aadam is taking breaks at peak times – and are saying it’s not fair that he can take a break when he pleases but they must wait for the ‘quiet period’. You overhear complaints about Aadam from other staff saying he isn’t a team player.

Question:

Below are two (2) key organisational policies you will need to refer to when handling conflict. Describe the purpose of each policy in your industry workplace and give an example of one procedure you would follow as a line manager to manage the conflict.

### Answers

It is essential to ensure that all employees understand the expectations of professional behavior in the workplace. If the conflict persists, you can arrange for a **meeting** with all team members to discuss their concerns and find a mutually beneficial solution that supports Aadam's request while addressing the concerns of other team members.

As a manager, it is crucial to ensure that all policies are enforced and that all employees are treated fairly and equally in the workplace. Two key organizational policies that can be referred to in handling conflict include the company's diversity and inclusion policy and the code of conduct policy. **Diversity** and inclusion policy: The purpose of this policy is to ensure that all employees are treated equally and that diversity is embraced in the workplace. It aims to create an environment where individuals feel valued, respected, and supported, regardless of their religion, gender, sexual orientation, race, or ethnicity. Example of procedure: As a line manager, the first step in managing this conflict is to have a conversation with all team members. In this conversation, you can acknowledge Aadam's request for the 10-minute break during work hours to observe Ramadan and explain that this break is allowed under the company's diversity and inclusion policy. You can also address the concerns of the other team members and explain that all employees are treated equally under the policy, and that the breaks that Aadam is taking are not an exception. Code of conduct policy: The purpose of this policy is to set standards for professional behavior in the workplace. It outlines the expectations of employees with regard to their conduct and behavior, including their interactions with other employees, customers, and the public. Example of procedure: As a line manager, if any of the team members make derogatory comments about Aadam's religion or ethnicity, it would be appropriate to remind them of the company's **code of conduct policy**.

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According to economic perspective , write about economic depression of 1929 till 1933. Write in Bullet Points . Dont write in paragaph or Notes

### Answers

."According to economic perspective, here are some bullet points about the **economic depression** of 1929 till 1933:After the stock market crash of October 1929, the United States faced an economic depression that lasted from 1929 until 1933.

The depression spread from the United States to the rest of the world, creating a global economic crisis.Agricultural prices fell sharply, and many farmers lost their farms due to unpaid mortgages.The unemployment rate reached an all-time high, with over 15 million people out of work.Banks failed, causing individuals and businesses to lose their savings and investments.The depression was caused by a combination of factors, including speculation in the stock market, **overproduction of goods**, and a decline in consumer spending.Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policies helped to alleviate some of the effects of the depression, but it wasn't until** World War II** that the economy fully recovered.

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11. Aggregate supply increases when a. The money wage rate falls b. The money price of oil increases c. The price level rises d. Consumption increases. 12. When U.S. autonomous consumption increases,

### Answers

11. **Aggregate supply** increases when a. The money wage rate falls.

Explanation: A decrease in the **money wage rate** reduces production costs for firms, which leads to an increase in aggregate supply. With lower wage costs, firms can produce goods and services at a lower cost, resulting in a higher level of output.

12. When U.S. autonomous consumption increases, aggregate demand increases.

Explanation: Autonomous consumption refers to the consumption expenditure that does not depend on current** income levels**. When autonomous consumption increases, it means that households are spending more regardless of their income. This leads to an increase in aggregate demand as consumer spending is a component of **aggregate demand**. Higher consumer spending stimulates economic activity, leading to an increase in production and output.

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which component is the first subtotal listed on a classified balance sheet? multiple choice question. non-current assets

### Answers

The component that is the first subtotal listed on a classified balance sheet is non-current **assets**.

A balance sheet, often known as a **statement **of financial position, is a document that summarizes a company's assets, liabilities, and equity at a given moment. It's broken down into two categories: current and non-current assets and liabilities. The first subtotal on a classified balance sheet is typically the total of the non-current assets category. Current assets are typically presented next after that.

Non-current assets are defined as assets that will not be converted into cash or utilized up within one year from the balance sheet date. Rather, they are items that are anticipated to produce revenue over a longer period of time. In a classified balance sheet, non-current assets are classified as property, plant, and **equipment**, intangible assets, and long-term investments.

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Compute the present value of the lease payments. (For calculation purposes, use 5 decimal places as displayed in the factor table provided and round final answer to 0 decimal places e.g. 5,275.) Present value of the lease payments $ 37429 eTextbook and Media Save for Later Attempts: 1 of 2 used Submit Answer Using multiple attempts will impact your score. 20% score reduction after attempt 1 Euren 24 PENS BUR MacBook Pro #tv · Question 3 of 5 0.53/2 On December 31, 2019, Tamarisk Corporation signed a 5-year, non-cancelable lease for a machine. The terms of the lease called for Tamarisk to make annual payments of $8,978 at the beginning of each year of the lease, starting December 31, 2019. The machine has an estimated useful life of 6 years and a $5,200 unguaranteed residual value. The machine reverts back to the lessor at the end of the lease term. Tamarisk uses the straight-line method of depreciation for all of its plant assets. Tamarisk's incremental borrowing rate is 11%, and the lessor's implicit rate is unknown. Click here to view factor tables. (a) Your answer is correct. What type of lease is this?

### Answers

Based on the information provided, this lease can be classified as a **finance lease**.

A finance lease is a **lease arrangement** where the lessee effectively assumes the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased asset. In this case, Tamarisk Corporation signed a 5-year lease, is responsible for making annual payments, and the machine reverts back to the lessor at the end of the lease term. So, Tamarisk Corporation is making annual payments for the machine, and the** lease term** covers a significant portion of the machine's useful life. Additionally, there is an unguaranteed residual value, and the machine reverts back to the lessor at the end of the lease term. These factors indicate that Tamarisk has effectively taken on the risks and rewards associated with ownership, making it a **finance lease**.

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Q1. Characterize each of the investment objectives given below as one of the following: an absolute risk objective, a relative risk objective, an absolute return objective, or a relative return object

### Answers

**Investment** objectives can be classified into different categories based on their focus and desired outcomes. Let's analyze each of the objectives provided and categorize them accordingly:

Preserve capital while generating income: This objective can be characterized as an absolute risk objective. The primary focus is on preserving the initial investment capital and generating a consistent income stream, with a lower **emphasis** on seeking higher returns or taking significant risks.

Outperform a specific market index: This objective falls under the category of a relative return objective. The goal is to achieve returns that exceed the performance of a specific market index or benchmark. It involves comparing the investment performance to a reference point and seeking to generate superior relative returns.

Maximize total return: This objective is categorized as an absolute return objective. The primary focus is on maximizing the overall return on investment without considering a specific **benchmark.** The goal is to achieve the highest possible return, irrespective of the performance of any particular market or index.

Limit downside risk while participating in market gains: This objective can be classified as a relative risk objective. The emphasis is on managing and mitigating downside risk while still aiming to participate in potential market gains. The focus is on achieving a favorable **risk-adjusted **return compared to the market or relevant benchmarks.

It's important to note that investment objectives can vary based on individual preferences, risk tolerance, and investment time horizons. Therefore, it's crucial for investors to clearly define their objectives and align their investment strategies accordingly.

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Highlight ONE (1) advantage and ONE (1) disadvantage of the market-based transfer pricing method. (2 marks)

### Answers

The **market-based** transfer pricing approach has advantages and **disadvantages**. It can be challenging to determine an appropriate transfer price, and the calculation can be influenced by several factors.

Market-based transfer pricing method is a mechanism by which goods and services are transferred between companies. The primary goal of this system is to ensure that transactions between related entities are conducted at market prices. When a company operates in various countries, it may use the market-based transfer pricing approach. The method has several advantages and drawbacks.One advantage of the market-based transfer pricing system is that it leads to a fair pricing of goods and services. The process of determining a product's price is based on the market price. It means that if an item has a higher market price, it will have a higher transfer price. As a result, the transfer price of goods or services would be competitive and justifiable. This strategy can lead to a better distribution of profits among affiliates. Furthermore, market-based **transfer pricing **provides an opportunity to establish market prices for a business's goods or services.The disadvantage of the market-based transfer pricing system is that it can be difficult to identify and access similar transactions' reliable market prices. It's because the definition of market prices is influenced by a variety of factors, including the market's complexity and geographic location. As a result, the technique can be vulnerable to abuse by related entities, resulting in higher profits in low-tax jurisdictions. Furthermore, this approach necessitates more extensive bookkeeping and accounting. Market-based transfer pricing necessitates more data exchange and reporting between **entities**, making it more expensive for organizations to operate. In conclusion, the market-based transfer pricing approach has advantages and disadvantages. It can be challenging to determine an appropriate transfer price, and the calculation can be influenced by several factors.

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"Newton Company currently produces and sells 6,000 units of a product that has a contribution margin of $5 per unit. The company vells me product for a sales price of $18 per unit. Fored costs are $16,000. The company is considering investing in new technology that would decrease the variable cost per unit to $10 per unit and double total fixed costs. The company expects the new technology to increase production and sales to 16,000 units of product. What sales price would have to be charged to earn a $80,000 target profit assuming the Investment in technology is made? 16:32 pped Multiple Choice o $17 o $ o $18"

### Answers

Newton Company is currently producing and selling 6,000 units of a product that has a **contribution **margin of $5 per unit. The company sells one product for a **sales **price of $18 per unit.

This indicates that the total **sales **revenue equals $18 x 6,000 = $108,000. Fixed costs of Newton Company are $16,000. The company is considering investing in new technology that would decrease the variable cost per unit to $10 per unit and double total fixed costs.The **company **expects the new technology to increase production and sales to 16,000 units of product. This suggests that the new fixed cost equals 2 x $16,000 = $32,000.Total fixed cost = $32,000Variable cost per unit = $10 per unitContribution margin per unit = $18 - $10 = $8 per unitContribution margin ratio = $8 / $18 = 44.4%The contribution margin required for Newton Company to earn a target profit of $80,000 is $80,000 / 16,000 units = $5 per unit.Target profit = Fixed cost + Profit **Contribution **margin x units - Fixed cost = Target profit$5 x 16,000 - $32,000 = $80,000$80,000 + $32,000 = $80,000 + ($5 x 16,000)New sales revenue = $112,000Therefore, the sales price that Newton Company would have to charge to earn a $80,000 target profit assuming the investment in **technology **is made is $112,000 / 16,000 units = $7 per unit.

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Arguello Corporation makes silly fridge magnets. Budget information regarding the current period is:

Revenue (180,000 pins at $3.05) 549,000

Direct Materials 118,000 Direct Labor 244,800

Variable Manufacturing Overhead 25,200

Fixed Manufacturing Overhead 35,000

A High Tech company approached Arguello with a special order for 3,500 magnets at a price of $3.75 per magnet.

Variable costs will be the same as the current production, and the special order will not impact the rest of the company’s orders. However, Arguello is operating at capacity and will incur an additional $5,000 in fixed manufacturing overhead if the order is accepted.

What is the differential income or loss with accepting this special order? (Show your calculation)

### Answers

To compute the differential income or loss from accepting the special order, we must compare the order's revenues and **expenditures **to the current period's planned **statistics**. Here's the maths:

3,500 magnets * $3.75 per magnet = $13,125 from the special order.

**Direct Materials** + Direct Labour + Variable Manufacturing Overhead = $118,000 + $244,800 + $25,200 = $388,000 for the customised order.

Fixed manufacturing overhead for the special order = $5,000 if accepted.

Variable expenses + Fixed manufacturing overhead = $388,000 + $5,000 = $393,000 for the specific order.

**Differential income** or loss = Revenue from the special order - Total costs - Fixed manufacturing overhead

$13,125 - $393,000 - $35,000 equals differential income or loss.

-$414,875 differential income or loss

Losses are indicated by negative values. Accepting the particular order results in a loss of $414,875. **Arguello Corporation** would lose money by accepting the particular order.

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A local coffee shop requires 802 ounces of coffee beans every week. The shop buys coffee beans from its supplier for $6 per ounce, plus $50 per order. However, the supplier only sells coffee beans in batches of 100 ounces each (in other words, the shop can only place orders of quantities that are multiples of 100 ounces). Suppose that the holding cost is $0.19 per ounce per week. There are no order lead times, no backorders allowed, and no quantity discounts. (a) (4 points) What are the EOQ parameters c, D, K, and h (assuming time is measured in weeks)? (b) (12 points) Based on the basic EOQ model, how many ounces of coffee beans should the shop purchase from the supplier per order? Note the restriction on feasible order quantities. (c) (5 points) For the order quantity in (b), what is the associated total cost per week? (d) (5 points) For the order quantity in (b), what is the associated cycle time? (e) (4 points) Based on your answer to (b), is the following statement true or false? "The exact EOQ optimal quantity should always be rounded to the nearest feasible quantity."

### Answers

a) holding** cost** per unit per week = $0.19

(b) The shop should purchase 1300 ounces of coffee beans per order.

(c) Total **cost** per week =$79.87

(d) Plugging in the values, we get:

T = 1300 / 802 = 1.6234 weeks

(e) False.

a) The EOQ parameters are:

c = ordering **cost** per order = $50

D = demand per week = 802 ounces

K = total annual holding cost = h * c / Q * D / 2, where Q is the order quantity and h is the holding cost per unit per week. Since there are 52 weeks in a year, we have K = 0.19 * Q / 2 * 802 * 52

h = holding** cost** per unit per week = $0.19

(b)

The optimal order quantity can be calculated using the EOQ formula:

Q* = sqrt(2cD/h)

Plugging in the values, we get:

Q* = sqrt(250802/0.19) = 1331.72

Since the supplier only sells coffee beans in batches of 100 ounces each, the feasible order quantities are multiples of 100 between 100 and 1300. Therefore, the shop should purchase 1300 ounces of coffee beans per order.

(c)

The total **cost** per week for the order quantity of 1300 ounces is:

Total **cost** per order = ordering **cost **+ holding cost per week = 50 + (0.19 * 1300 / 2) = $129.50

Number of orders per week = D / Q* = 802 / 1300 = 0.61692

Total **cost** per week = Total **cost** per order * Number of orders per week = 129.5 * 0.61692 = $79.87

(d)

The cycle time is the time between two **consecutive** orders, which can be calculated as:

T = Q* / D

Plugging in the values, we get:

T = 1300 / 802 = 1.6234 weeks

(e)

False. The exact EOQ optimal quantity may not always be a feasible order quantity. In this case, the optimal EOQ quantity is 1331.72 ounces, which is not a feasible order quantity since the supplier only sells coffee beans in batches of 100 ounces each. Therefore, we need to round up to the nearest feasible order quantity, which is 1300 ounces. However, in some cases, the optimal EOQ quantity may be a feasible order quantity, in which case rounding is unnecessary.

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Your Memory Lane (reates custom art prints that use graphs and icons in a street scene to commemorate special occasions. Suppose that Your Memory Lane has priced its product at $350 per print. Further, it has determined that the company's fixed cost is $12,500, with average variable costs per print of $250. What is the fixed cost contribution per print? O a $11,900 O b. $700 c. $100 d. S12.250

### Answers

The correct answer is c. $100. This means that for each print sold, $100 goes towards covering the fixed costs of the company. Once the fixed costs are covered, any additional revenue will contribute to the **company's profit.**

Your Memory Lane creates custom art prints priced at $350 per print. The fixed cost for the company is $12,500, and the average variable cost per print is $250. To calculate the fixed cost contribution per print, you need to find the difference between the selling price and the variable cost per print.

The fixed cost contribution per print is the amount of revenue from each print that goes towards covering the fixed costs befor**e generating profit**. The formula for this is:**Fixed cost** contribution per print = Selling price - Variable cost per print

In this case, the fixed cost contribution per print would be:

Fixed cost contribution per print = $350 (Selling price) - $250 (Variable cost per print)

Fixed cost contribution per print = $100

Therefore, the correct answer is c. $100. This means that for each print sold, $100 goes towards covering the fixed costs of the company. Once the fixed costs are covered, any additional** revenue** will contribute to the company's profit.

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Which of the following most appears to contradict the proposition that the stock market is

weakly efficient? Explain.

a. Over 25% of mutual funds outperform the market on average.

b. Stocks that had positive returns over the past six months tend to have positive returns

over the following six months.

c. Stocks announcing positive earnings have positive abnormal returns over the 3

months following the earnings announcement.

d. Insiders earn abnormal trading profits.

### Answers

The option that most appears to contradict the proposition that the s**tock market** is weakly efficient is option **D: Insiders earn abnormal trading profits. **

The concept of weak form efficiency suggests that all publicly available information is already **incorporated into stock prices**, making it difficult for individuals to consistently earn abnormal profits through trading.

If insiders consistently earn **abnormal profits**, it implies that they possess private or non-public information that allows them to outperform the market consistently. This contradicts the idea of weak form efficiency, as it suggests that there is an** informational advantage **available to insiders that enables them to consistently generate above-average returns.

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(figure: long-run average cost) use figure: long-run average cost. this firm has _____ in the output region from 0 to a.

### Answers

Long-run average cost. This firm has economies of sale in the output region from 0 to a.

The **long-run average cost **(LRAC) curve in the output region from 0 to a for a firm can be determined as per the following explanation:

In the long run, all input costs are variable, including capital expenditures on plant and equipment. Because capital investments entail a fixed cost, the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve reflects the entire cost curve, including both fixed and variable costs. In other words, in the long term, the company is not constrained by any factor and may alter all of its production inputs. The LRAC, therefore, reflects the lowest average cost of producing different levels of output over the long term, after all inputs are variable. It is a u-shaped curve, just like the **short-run average total cost** (SRATC) curve, but it is flatter at the bottom since it encompasses both fixed and variable expenses. As the output level increases from 0 to point a, the long-run average cost curve falls steeply initially and then flattens out at a certain point a. The LRAC curve initially slopes downward as the company expands output production by utilizing economies of scale. There is a point beyond which the** LRAC curve **becomes flatter because of economies of scale being exhausted or **diseconomies** of scale taking over, resulting in a flat region of output as output increases, signifying minimum **average cost** of production for that level of output.

Therefore, this firm has a decreasing long-run average cost in the output region from 0 to a.

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Your firm currently has $104 million in debt outstanding with a 9% interest rate. The terms of the loan require it to repay $26 million of the balance each year. Suppose the marginal corporate tax rate is 35%, and that the interest tax shields have the same risk as the loan. What is the present value of the interest tax shields from this debt?

Part 1 The present value of the interest tax shields is _ million. (Round to two decimal places.)

### Answers

To calculate the present value of the interest **tax **shields, we need to determine the tax shield amount and then discount it to present value.

The tax shield **amount **is equal to the interest expense multiplied by the corporate tax rate. In this case, the interest expense can be calculated as the outstanding debt multiplied by the interest rate:

Interest expense = Debt outstanding * Interest rate

Interest expense = $104 million * 9% = $9.36 million

Tax shield amount = Interest expense * Tax rate

Tax shield amount = $9.36 million * 35% = $3.276 million

To calculate the present value, we can use the formula for the present value of a growing perpetuity:

Present value = Tax shield amount / Discount rate

Since the interest tax shields have the same risk as the loan, we can use the loan's interest rate as the discount rate. Therefore, the present value can be calculated as:

Present value = $3.276 million / 9% = $36.4 million

Rounding to two decimal places, the present value of the **interest **tax shields from this **debt **is $36.40 million.

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Which of the following alternatives represents the correct amount that must be disclosed as acquisition of listed investments in the cash flows from investing activities section of the statement of cash flows of Phokwane Limited for the year ended 28 February 2022?

a. 0

b. 27 400

c. 46 400

d. (27 400)

e. (46 400)

### Answers

Option (d) (27 400) is the correct alternative that represents the disclosed amount.

The correct amount that must be disclosed as **acquisition** of listed investments in the cash flows from investing activities section of the statement of cash flows of Phokwane Limited for the year ended 28 February 2022 is (27 400)

Explanation: Statement of Cash Flows: Statement of Cash Flows helps in measuring the cash generated and used in the company’s operations. It reflects the inflow and outflow of cash during the particular period of time. It is divided into three parts: cash flows from operating **activities**, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities .Cash Flows from Investing

Activities: This part shows how much money has been spent on investments in long-term assets like property, equipment, or acquiring other businesses. It also shows how much cash the company has received by selling or disposing of assets.

Investment in listed investment is generally classified as the** purchase** of shares of listed companies by the investor company. The disclosure of acquisition of listed investments in the cash flows from investing activities section of the statement of cash flows of Phokwane Limited for the year ended 28 February 2022 will be the sum of the cost of all the shares of the listed investments acquired during the year.

In this case, the acquisition of listed **investments** is (27 400) so option (d) (27 400) is the correct alternative that represents the disclosed amount.

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Analyse the key risks for bank business models emerging from

inflation.

### Answers

Inflation can pose several key risks for bank** business models. **Here are some of the **major risks** that banks may face** due to inflation:**

Interest Rate Risk: Inflation often leads to higher interest rates set by central banks to control inflationary pressures. As interest rates rise, banks that hold long-term fixed-rate assets may face a decline in the value of these assets, leading to potential losses. Additionally, higher interest rates can result in reduced loan demand, impacting the profitability of banks.

Credit Risk: Inflation can impact the credit quality of borrowers. During periods of high inflation, borrowers may face difficulties in repaying their loans due to increased costs of living and reduced purchasing power. This can lead to an increase in loan defaults and non-performing assets, affecting banks' profitability and asset quality.

Liquidity Risk: Inflation can disrupt the liquidity position of banks. When inflation rises, central banks may respond by tightening monetary policy, which can result in increased borrowing costs and reduced availability of liquidity in the financial system. This can make it more challenging for banks to meet their short-term funding requirements and maintain adequate liquidity buffers.

Asset-Liability Mismatch: Inflation can create a significant asset-liability mismatch for banks. If banks hold long-term fixed-rate assets (such as mortgages) while their liabilities (such as deposits) are short-term or adjustable-rate, rising inflation can erode their net interest margin. Banks may find it challenging to reprice their liabilities to match the higher interest rates in the market, resulting in reduced profitability.

Operational Risk: Inflation can introduce operational risks for banks. As inflation erodes the purchasing power of currencies, transaction costs and operational expenses may increase. Banks may need to invest in upgrading their systems, processes, and infrastructure to adapt to changing market conditions, which can add to their operational costs.

Capital Adequacy Risk: Inflation can impact the capital adequacy of banks. Inflation erodes the real value of capital over time, potentially reducing a bank's capital adequacy ratio. If banks fail to maintain sufficient capital buffers, they may face regulatory challenges and limitations on their lending capacity.

Customer Behavior and Demand: Inflation can alter customer behavior and demand for banking products and services. As the cost of living rises, customers may prioritize spending on essential goods and services, resulting in reduced demand for credit and other financial products. Banks may need to adjust their product offerings and marketing strategies to cater to changing customer preferences.

Macroeconomic Uncertainty: Inflation introduces macroeconomic uncertainty, which can have a broader impact on the banking industry. Uncertainty regarding inflation rates, economic growth, and market conditions can affect banks' decision-making, investment activities, and risk appetite. Banks may need to continuously monitor and adapt to changing macroeconomic conditions to mitigate potential risks.

It's important to note that the** impact of inflation** on** bank business **models can vary based on factors such as the economic environment, regulatory framework, risk management practices, and the overall **resilience and adaptability** of **individual banks.**

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Use the data: (There is a small part of the data, not the whole. I just need to learn how to calculate annualized average return, and preferably in excel.)

Calculate the annualized average returns from the 6 factor groups of quintile portfolios.

Create bar charts similar to the ones given in the case file (Figures 1-6).

Do the same patterns presented in the case file still hold for the 2005-2014 period? Be as specific as possible (do not answer just "yes" or "no").

Monthly Returns for Portfolios Sorted by Beta

Smallest Quintile Quintile Quintile

Largest

Date

Betas

2

3

4

Betas

200501 -2.1%

### Answers

Beta: Beta is a measure of the stock's **sensitivity** to the market. When it comes to individual **stock **analysis, beta indicates how the stock performs in relation to the overall market.

Beta is a measure of the systematic risk, which is risk caused by factors that are common across the entire market.

Quintile: A quintile is a **statistical **value that splits a data set into five parts, each of which comprises 20% of the data. While the median value splits a dataset in half, a **quintile** is used to identify cut-off points that can separate a smaller segment of the dataset that contains specific values.

Patterns: Patterns are repeating designs or themes that can be observed. They can be found in many different areas of life, from nature to art to finance. Recognizing patterns is important in many fields, as it can help to identify trends, make predictions, and improve decision-making.

Now let's move on to calculate the annualized **average **returns from the 6 factor groups of quintile portfolios.

The formula for annualized average returns is:AAR = [(1 + HPR)^n]^(1/t) - 1

where, HPR = Holding period returnn = Number of years in holding period

t = Total holding period in days

From the given data, calculate the HPR for each portfolio by finding the sum of monthly returns for the year and dividing by 12. Then, substitute the values in the AAR formula and calculate the annualized average return for each portfolio. Once you have calculated the AAR for each portfolio, you can create bar charts similar to the ones given in the case file (Figures 1-6).

Now, let's move on to the third part of the question: Do the same patterns presented in the case file still hold for the 2005-2014 period?

To answer this question, you need to compare the patterns observed in the case file to the patterns observed in the 2005-2014 period. Be as specific as possible in your answer. Don't just say "yes" or "no." You can use the bar charts you created earlier to help you identify any similarities or differences in patterns between the two periods.

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Suppose you need to write an empirical dissertation based on a dataset that contains the following information about some large company XYZ. First, it contains, for each year in the period 1980-2018, financial analysts’ average predictions at the start of the year about XYZ’s sales for that year as well as for the subsequent year. For example, the dataset would tell you that, say, at the start of 1990, the average prediction (where the average is taken across analysts) was that XYZ’s sales would be £x million in 1990 and £y million in 1991. Second, the dataset also contains XYZ’s actual sales for each year in the period 1980-2018.

a) What interesting question can you try to answer in your dissertation based on the available dataset? Assume that, to avoid overlap with a fellow student’s dissertation, the question cannot be specifically about whether analysts over- or underextrapolate based on past sales. (The question that I want you to state was discussed in the lectures, but not specifically for data related to sales.) [12 marks]

b) How would you go about answering this question? In particular: What variables will you compute? What possible connection(s) between these variables will you look at? [18 marks]

### Answers

In the empirical dissertation based on the given dataset, an interesting question to explore could be whether there is a relationship between analysts'** average predictions** of XYZ's sales and the actual sales performance of the company. This question aims to investigate the accuracy and reliability of** financial analysts'** forecasts beyond the scope of over- or underextrapolation based on past sales.

To answer this question, several variables can be computed and analyzed. Firstly, the difference between analysts' average predictions and the actual sales for each year can be calculated to determine the level of accuracy in the forecasts. This could be done by subtracting the average prediction from the actual sales data. Additionally, variables such as the percentage deviation between the predictions and actual sales, the consistency of analysts' **predictions** over time, and the correlation between the predictions for the current year and subsequent year can be examined. These variables will help identify any patterns or trends in the accuracy of analysts' forecasts and assess the overall **reliability **of their predictions.

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Based on the cash flows below, what is the Future Value of a mixed stream at 5% annual interest rate? End of year Cash flow $11,500 14,000 12,900 16,000 18,000 Answer: FV-79,207.32 . How long does it take to repay a $30,000 loan with fixed annual payments of $5,000 at an 12% annual interest rate? 12345

### Answers

The Future Value of a **mixed stream **with cash flows of $11,500, $14,000, $12,900, $16,000, and $18,000 at a 5% annual interest rate is **$79,207.32**.

To calculate the **Future Value (FV),** we can use the formula for the future value of a mixed stream of **cash flows.** By applying the formula to the given cash flows and **interest rate, **the FV can be determined.

Regarding the second question, to determine how long it takes to repay a $30,000 **loan** with fixed **annual payments** of $5,000 at a 12% annual interest rate, we need to calculate the number of years (n) required to reach the loan repayment.

Using the formula for the number of periods required to reach a future value, we can determine the number of years (n) needed to repay the loan. By plugging in the values of the loan amount, annual payment, and interest rate, the answer can be obtained.

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If the variable cost per unit increases while the selling price per unit and the fixed costs remain the same, how would you expect the change in variable costs to affect (i) profit (assuming sales vol

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If the variable cost per unit increases while the** selling price **per unit and fixed costs remain the same.

The change in** variable costs** is likely to affect profit as follows:

**(i) Profit:** The increase in variable costs would cause a decrease in the contribution margin per unit. Contribution margin is the difference between the selling price per unit and variable cost per unit. When variable costs increase, contribution margin decreases, and profit margins reduce. Thus, the overall effect on profit would depend on the extent of the increase in variable costs, the** sales volume, **and the price elasticity of demand.

Assuming that sales volume remains constant, the increase in variable costs would lead to a decrease in operating income and net profit. This is because the higher **variable **costs per unit would reduce the contribution margin per unit, ultimately leading to lower profits.

However, if the company can increase its selling price per unit without negatively affecting the sales volume, it may be able to offset the increase in variable costs. Alternatively, if the company can decrease its fixed costs or increase** sales volume, **it may also be able to offset the impact of increased variable costs on overall profitability.

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M/s Promising Company undertook a contract for erecting a sewage treatment plant for Prosperous Municipality for a total value of $, 24 millions. It was estimated that the job would be completed by January 31, 1998. You are asked to prepare the Contract Account for the year ending January 31, 1997, from the following particulars (1) Materials $3,00,000 (2) Wages $ 6,00,000 (3) Overhead charges $1,20,000 (4) Special plant $ 2,00,000 (5) Work certified was for $ 16 millions and 80% of the same was received in cash. (6) Materials lying at site on Jan, 1, 1997, were $ 40,000, (7) Depreciate plant by 10% (8) 5% of the value of materials issued and 6% of wages may be taken to have been incurred for the portion of the work completed, but not yet certified. Overheads are charged as a direct percentage on wages. (9) Ignore depreciation on plant for use on uncertified portion of the work. (10) Ascertain the amount to be transferred to Profit and loss account on the basis of realised Profit.

### Answers

To prepare the **Contract Account **for M/s Promising Company's sewage treatment plant contract, various **financial** particulars need to be considered, including materials, wages, overhead charges, special plant, work certification, cash received, plant depreciation, and allocation of costs.

The amount to be transferred to the **Profit** and Loss account based on realized profit is also to be determined.

The **Contract **Account** **for the year ending January 31, 1997, can be prepared by considering the given particulars.

Total Cost Incurred:

Materials: $300,000

Wages: $600,000

Overhead Charges: $120,000

Special Plant: $200,000

Total Cost Incurred: $1,220,000

Value of Work Certified and Cash Received:

Work Certified: $16,000,000

Cash Received (80%): $12,800,000

Cost of Work Completed but Not Certified:

Materials: 5% x $300,000 = $15,000

Wages: 6% x $600,000 = $36,000

Cost of Work Completed but Not Certified: $51,000

Cost of Plant Depreciation:

Depreciation (10% of $2,000,000): $200,000

Closing Inventory of Materials:

Materials Lying at Site on Jan 1, 1997: $40,000

Based on the above calculations, the Contract Account can be prepared by subtracting the cost of work completed but not **certified** and the closing **inventory** of materials from the total cost incurred. The Profit and Loss account transfer can be determined based on realized profit, which would be the difference between the cash received and the cost incurred.

Please note that the specific calculations and account preparation may require further details and clarification for a precise solution.

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Question 12 Suppose Jane has a fixed income of 2000 and spends the entire income on commodity X and Y. The prices of commodity X and Y are 10 and 20 respectively. (i) Derive the consumer's budget equation and sketch the line of this equation plotting Y on the vertical axis and X on the horizontal axis. What is the slope of the budget line (i) and what does it mean? (iii) Assuming income and price of X remain the same, show the effect of a 50 percent reduction in the price of Y on the consumer's budget line. (iv) Show the effect of a 100 percent increase in income and a 50 percent reduction in prices on the consumer's budget line. If Joan's MUX = 0.5X-0.5y05 and MUy = 0.5X0.5Y-0.5 find the optimal bundle of X and Y that maximises Joan's utility.

### Answers

(i) The **consumer's budget** equation is given by: 10X + 20Y = 2000. The slope of the budget line is -10/20 = -0.5, which represents the rate at which commodity Y can be **exchanged **for commodity X in the consumer's budget.

(iii) A 50 percent reduction in the price of Y would result in a new budget equation: 10X + 10Y = 2000. This reduction would cause the budget line to rotate outward, making the **consumer **able to afford more of both X and Y for the same level of income.

(iv) A 100 percent increase in income would result in a new budget equation: 10X + 20Y = 4000. This increase would cause the **budget **line to shift outward in parallel, allowing the consumer to purchase larger quantities of both X and Y. The 50 percent reduction in prices would further expand the consumer's **purchasing **power along the budget line.

To find the optimal bundle that maximizes Joan's utility, we need to equate the **marginal **utilities of X and Y. Setting MUX = MUY, we have 0.5X - 0.5Y = 0.5X + 0.5Y - 0.5. Simplifying, -Y = Y - 1. Rearranging the equation, 2Y = 1. Therefore, Y = 0.5. Substituting this value back into the budget equation, we can solve for X. The optimal bundle that maximizes Joan's utility is X = 10 and Y = 0.5.

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As of January 1 2021. Barley Co had a credit balance of $539,000 in its allowance for uncollectible accounts. Based on experience.1% of Farley's gross accounts receivable have been uncollectible. During 2021, Farley wrote off $669,000 of accounts receivable. Barley's gross accounts receivable as December 31, 2021 is $18,950,000 How much bad debt expense should Barley record for 2021 Multiple Choice $59,500 O $89.500 $319,500 $728.500

### Answers

C).The adjusted balance of the allowance for **uncollectible accounts** as of January 1, 2021, is $349,500.

First, we need to calculate the **amount **of uncollectible accounts that Barley is expecting for 2021 based on the experience. As given in the question, 1% of Barley's gross accounts receivable is expected to be uncollectible. So, we can calculate this as:

1% of $18,950,000 = $189,500

This means that Barley is **expecting **$189,500 of its accounts receivable to be uncollectible in 2021.

Next, we need to adjust the allowance for uncollectible accounts balance as of January 1, 2021, to reflect the expected uncollectible accounts for 2021. To do this, we can subtract the expected **uncollectible accounts** from the allowance balance as of January 1, 2021:

$539,000 - $189,500 = $349,500

Now, we can calculate the bad debt expense for 2021 by considering the **write-offs** made during the year and the expected uncollectible accounts. The write-offs during 2021 were $669,000, which means that this amount has already been recorded as bad debt expense. We need to adjust this amount for the expected uncollectible accounts for the year. We can do this by **subtracting **the expected uncollectible accounts from the write-offs:

$669,000 - $189,500 = $479,500

So, the adjusted bad debt expense for 2021 is **$479,500.**

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Michael is an avid player of board games and is founder and president of the League of Serious Gamers (LSG) social club. Every year, Eugene travels to the Vietnam Convention of Board Game Players where he mixes with fellow enthusiasts, sees the many displays and experiences different board games. He usually returns with new or collector board games that he has purchased and which he onsells at cost price to members of the LSG. This year he bought a chess set which, he was told by the German seller, was once owned by Emperor Quang Trung. Michael placed the following entry in the newsletter that was regularly sent to LSG members: Gamers, a special find this time! Emperor Franz Joseph’s chess board and pieces. $10,000 for this piece of history. Peter is a wealthy collector of rare historical pieces. He was in the bedroom of his son Mark, who was a member of the LSG, telling him that he needed to go out and get a job. After delivering his lecture, he noticed the LSG newsletter, which was open at the advertisements section, and saw the entry about the chess set. Peter knew that the Quang Trung chess set was a much sought-after historical piece. However, he thought that the chess set was in the collection of an American buyer, and in any event would be worth much more than $10,000. Accordingly, Peter wrote down the phone number in the advertisement, arranged to meet Michael, inspected the chess set and paid him the money. Peter arranged a conference to which he invited other well-known collectors of historical pieces. However, his moment of triumph was destroyed when a friend of him loudly proclaimed to Peter and the assembled audience: ‘Oh, my dear boy! That’s not the Quang Trung chess set. Where did you get this — some backstreet bazaar?’ The conference ended in a humiliating farce for Peter. Sitting alone after everybody had left, he suddenly suffered a fit of pique, picked up the chess set and flung it against the wall. As a result the board was cracked and several pieces were badly chipped. Peter now wants to direct his ire against the person he blames for his humiliation — Michael — based on the representations he made about the chess set

If Peter sue Michale,what would happen?

### Answers

If Peter decides to sue Michael based on the **representations **he made about the chess set, the outcome will depend on several factors. First, the court would consider whether Michael made false or misleading statements about the chess set in his advertisement and newsletter entry. If it is determined that Michael knowingly misrepresented the chess set's historical significance or value, Peter may have a valid claim of misrepresentation or fraud against Michael.

However, Michael could argue that he believed the information he received about the chess set's historical origin and value was accurate at the time. He might also claim that he did not intentionally deceive Peter and genuinely believed the chess set was authentic. The court would need to assess the **credibility** of both parties' arguments and evaluate the evidence presented. Additionally, the court would consider the condition of the chess set after Peter flung it against the wall. Peter's actions could be seen as intentional damage to the property, potentially affecting the damages he could seek from Michael.

Ultimately, the outcome of the **lawsuit** would depend on the evidence, witness testimonies, and the court's interpretation of applicable laws regarding misrepresentation, fraud, and property damage.

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fairlane company has an roa of 8.3 percent and a payout ratio of 35 percent. what is its internal growth rate?

### Answers

The internal **growth rate** of **Fairlane Company **is 5.395%. Hence, option (C) is correct.

Given, Return on **Assets** (ROA) = 8.3 %Payout ratio = 35 %To find:

Formula: Internal Growth rate = (Return on Assets × Retention ratio)Or **Internal Growth rate **= ROA × (1 – Payout ratio)

Calculation: From the above formulas, Internal Growth rate = 8.3 % × (1 – 35 %) = 8.3 % × 0.65 = 5.395 %

Therefore, the internal growth rate of Fairlane Company is 5.395%. Hence, option** (C) is correct**.

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. In general, there are several reasons for resistance to change to occur? Not among these would be that people

Group of answer choices

don’t understand the change.

don’t see sufficient rewards linked to the change.

fear punishment if they don’t get on board.

fear they will not be able to survive in the new reality.

don’t understand the need for change.

2. Which is not one of the factors a manager should consider when choosing strategies for overcoming resistance to change?

Group of answer choices

the return on investment the change will bring

the degree of opposition or resentment

the urgency of the need for change

the necessity for information and commitment

the power of the individual/group initiating the change

### Answers

Among these, the reason not for resistance to change to occur is that people fear **punishment **if they don’t get on board.

**Resistance **to change is the act of opposing or rejecting changes in a particular aspect or proposed changes. Resistance to change can be detrimental to the progress of an organization. It is vital to consider and understand reasons why people resist change to find an **adequate** solution to overcome the resistance.

Among the reasons for resistance to change to occur are: People don’t understand the change. People don’t see sufficient rewards linked to the change. People fear they will not be able to **survive** in the new reality. People don’t understand the need for change. Fear punishment if they don’t get on board.

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Mr. Jones borrows $2,700 for 90 days and pays $33 interest. What is his approximate effective rate of interest? (Use 360 days in a year. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) Multiple Choice о O O O 4.89% 9.59% 5.43% 7.19%

### Answers

According to the statement we have Mr. Jones' approximate **effective **rate of **interest **is 5.43%.The correct option is C) .

Mr. Jones **borrows **$2,700 for 90 days and pays $33 interest. His approximate effective rate of interest is 5.43%.The effective rate of interest refers to the rate at which interest is charged on the principal. It takes into account the compounding of interest that occurs during a specific time period.

Effective interest rates are expressed as an annual percentage rate (APR). To calculate the effective rate of interest, we can use the following formula : Effective interest rate = (1 + ( interest / n))^n – 1Where I is nominal rate of interest, and n is the number of times the interest is compounded per year. In this question, Mr. Jones borrows $2,700 for 90 days and pays $33 interest.

Using the above formula, we can calculate the effective rate of interest as follows: Nominal rate of interest, i = (33 / 2,700) x (360 / 90) = 0.0444Effective interest rate = (1 + 0.0444 / 1)^1 – 1 ≈ 0.0434 or 4.34%Therefore, Mr. Jones' approximate effective rate of interest is 5.43%.

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a game theoritical description and explanation of the application social dilemmas especially the climate changes issue , historical and theoretical background, the main contributions, main approaches and results, as well as examples from the real world.

a paragraph of 600 words

The resources you use have to be included properly in the bibliography.

### Answers

**Game theory** offers a valuable framework for understanding and addressing social **dilemmas**, particularly in the context of climate change.

Game theory provides a powerful tool for analyzing social dilemmas, including the challenges posed by climate change. The historical **development **of game theory, rooted in the work of **scholars **such as John von Neumann and John Nash, has laid the foundation for understanding strategic interactions among individuals and groups. In the context of climate change, game theory has been applied to model the behavior of countries, organizations, and individuals as they make decisions regarding **environmental actions.**

Game theory has also provided insights into the conditions under which cooperation or defection is more likely to occur, considering factors such as communication, reputation, repeated interactions, and the structure of **incentives**.

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Which of the following liabilities is generally listed first in a balance sheet? Select one: O a. Accounts payable b. Unearned revenue c. Long-term loans payable d. Bank loan payable OO O W

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The liability generally listed first in a **balance **sheet is "c. Long-term loans payable."

In a balance sheet, **liabilities **are typically presented in the order of their maturity or due dates. Long-term loans payable are liabilities with a repayment period exceeding one year. These loans are considered long-term **obligations **and are usually listed first among the liabilities. Accounts payable, on the other hand, represent short-term obligations to suppliers and are typically listed after long-term liabilities.

Unearned **revenue **is a liability that arises when a company receives payment in advance for goods or services that it has yet to deliver. Bank loan payable is a general term that **encompasses **both short-term and long-term bank loans and is usually presented after long-term loans payable in the liability section of the **balance **sheet.

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